More than 250 graduates receive degrees at 2016 Fall Commencement

With their family and friends packed into every seat of the Lee College Sports Arena, more than 250 graduates walked across the stage to receive their associate degrees at the 2016 Fall Commencement Ceremony.

“You did it. You made it happen,” said Pres. Dr. Dennis Brown, extending congratulations to both the graduates and the loved ones who supported them through their academic journey at the college. “There were a lot of challenges and obstacles, but you are here this evening and there is so much more to come. Education doesn’t stop tonight; our education lasts a lifetime. You have set a course, your path is before you and now it’s up to you to follow.”

As she praised the graduates’ hard work to achieve their dreams, keynote speaker State Sen. Sylvia Garcia — the eighth of 10 children who all completed high school — shared two of her earliest dreams. First, she wanted to someday work inside of an air-conditioned building rather than the sun-scorched farms and fields of her native Palito Blanco. Second, she wanted to make sure children would not have to stand in line to receive the shots they needed, as she and other poor youth from the small South Texas farming community did.

Garcia’s parents assured her that with hard work, an education and belief in God, she could realize any goal she set for her future. After earning a bachelor’s degree in social work and completing a Juris Doctor at the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at Texas Southern University, the former social worker and longtime public servant realized they were right.

“No matter who you are or where you come from, tonight you’re all very equal because that’s the beauty of education: it’s the great equalizer for all Americans,” Garcia said. “You have an education and you have a shot at the American Dream. Whether your father is a plant manager or welder or you were raised by a single mom, inside of the classroom you can achieve anything you set your mind to. It truly is a place where the sky is the limit.”

Though she was elected controller of the city of Houston and became the first Hispanic and first woman to be elected in her own right to the Harris County Commissioners Court en route to representing District 6 in the Texas Senate, Garcia told graduates that her first two election campaigns were failures. Success and failure are temporary and neither is a reason to grow complacent, discouraged or derailed, she said.

“There should never be a time in your life where you’re not challenged, because it is the challenge that stretches you and shows you what you can become,” Garcia said. “Use your will. Successful people aren’t stronger than others or necessarily smarter than others, but they have to have more desire than others. To succeed, you must desire to succeed more than anything else. Find something you can be passionate about. Find something where you can make your mark on this world. Keep dreaming. Reach for more. Do and dare.”

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Student Support Services Program celebrates summer & fall graduates

When Jarvis Booker joined the TRiO Student Support Services program at Lee College, he was looking for an organization or activity to help beef up his resume. Instead, he found a new family and discovered new dreams en route to earning this fall Associate of Applied Science degrees in Process Technology and Manufacturing Engineering Technology.

“It allowed me to enrich my character and develop determination, motivation and goals I never even had before,” said Booker, one of more than a dozen Student Support Services graduates honored at a special ceremony held Dec. 15, 2016, in the Rundell Hall Conference Center.

The federally-funded program offers a range of assistance to help low-income students, first-generation college students and students with disabilities progress through the academic pipeline — from financial aid and transfer assistance, to individualized education plans, individual and group tutoring and student success workshops.

“It was more than just help with registration and enrolling in the right classes. I learned things I never thought I would learn,” Booker said. “I received personal counseling in a more intimate setting.  I learned to trust my advisers because they know what’s best for me. They want people to work hard, and it makes you a better person to know what you can accomplish.”

At the ceremony, each graduate received a customized plaque in recognition of successful completion of their chosen degree or certificate program. They also had the opportunity to award a special certificate to an instructor, staff member or loved one whose support made a difference during their time on campus.

“You have accomplished so much and demonstrated academically and scholastically that you are a college graduate,” Pres. Dr. Dennis Brown said. “You now have the tools, knowledge and training to be very successful. Look back and think about those in your family, friends and community who you can now help direct, guide and advise.  Help someone like someone helped you.”

Treva Brown-Askey, a former TRiO participant and faculty member who chairs the Developmental Education Division at the college, also urged graduates to continue giving back to their community.

“Your journey doesn’t have to stop here,” Brown-Askey said. “You have the opportunity to do great things and the future is really yours. You have power. You are the example. We challenge you to take your experience to others. Keep moving forward.”

Like many of her fellow graduates, Brittnie Broglin took the message of continued progression to heart. She came to Student Support Services shortly after losing her mother, struggling to make it through her first semester at Lee College while also working two jobs. Now, after earning a second associate’s degree in E-Business Web Development, she feels ready to step into a bright and prosperous future in the information technology field.

“They were there to support me, helping me transition after my mother passed and keeping me on track with the classes I needed,” Broglin said. “After all the studying and working, graduation feels like a burden has been lifted. I can breathe. To anyone considering TriO, I would say ‘just try.’ It can only help you and it won’t hurt you. I feel wonderful.”

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Lee College campus going tobacco free starting in January

No ifs, ands or butts about it: Lee College is fully transitioning to a tobacco-free campus effective Jan. 1, 2017. Here are the details you need to know about the changes ahead.

What items and activities will be prohibited under the new tobacco-free policy?

Prohibited items and activities under the tobacco-free policy will include all forms of smoking, tobacco use, and unregulated nicotine products, including but not limited to:

  • cigarettes;
  • cigars (commercially or self-rolled);
  • pipes;
  • hookahs and water pipes;
  • electronic cigarettes;
  • vape pens; and,
  • smokeless tobacco (e.g., snuff, snus, chew).

How is tobacco use defined? How is smoking defined? 

Tobacco use includes smoking, chewing, dipping or any other use of tobacco products. Smoking refers to inhaling, exhaling, burning, or carrying of any lighted or heated tobacco product, as well as non-tobacco smoking substances and smoking instruments.

Where does the new policy apply?

The policy includes all property owned by Lee College. It’s important to note that this also means the parking lots and the smoking structures that were installed last year are off limits.

How will the policy be enforced?

The expectation is that persons will voluntarily comply with the tobacco-free policy. We will raise awareness through electronic messaging, signage, notices in event programs and marketing. An explanation of the  policy will be communicated to prospective and enrolling students and new employees. Additionally, we will ask event planners to include information about the policy in materials distributed to all outside groups that use college facilities.

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Rebel Rousing: Employee kudos, news, views, hires & resignations

Ivory JohnBaptiste, secretary for the Nursing Division, is part of the Lee College Class of Fall 2016. JohnBaptiste earned an Associate of Applied Science degree in Business Administration and Management.

Congratulations on earning your degree, Ivory! Your Lee College colleagues are happy and proud of your accomplishments.


Lauren Rae Oehler

and Laurie Oehler, administrators who work in Information Technology and Resource Development, respectfully, are pleased to announce the graduation of their daughter. Lauren Rae Oehler graduated this month with a Bachelor of Science degree in Music Business from Dallas Baptist University. She will return to the Houston area for work and begin pursuing a master’s degree in leadership next fall.

Congratulations, Lauren Rae! We know your parents and the entire Oehler family are proud of your achievements, and we wish you all the best for your future.  

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Weekly Wellness from Jason Summers

Five Different Physical Exercises that Affect The Brain in Very Different Ways

By Teal Burrell and

Pumping iron to sculpt your biceps. Yoga poses to stretch and relax. Running to whittle your waistline and get fit fast. There are loads of reasons why it’s smart to exercise, and most of us are familiar with the menu of options and how each can shape and benefit your body. But we are discovering that there are numerous ways in which exercise makes you smart too. Many of its effects have been going unnoticed, but if you were to peer inside the heads of people who like to keep active, you’d see that different exercises strengthen, sculpt and shape the brain in myriad ways.

That the brains of exercisers look different to those of their more sedentary counterparts is, in itself, not new. We have been hearing for years that exercise is medicine for the mind, especially aerobic exercise. Physical fitness has been shown to help with the cognitive decline associated with dementia, Parkinson’s disease and depression, and we know this is at least in part because getting your blood pumping brings more oxygen, growth factors, hormones and nutrients to your brain, leading it — like your muscles, lungs and heart — to grow stronger and more efficient.

But a new chapter is beginning in our understanding of the influence of physical exercise on cognition. Researchers are starting to find more specific effects related to different kinds of exercise.

Specifically, high-intensity intervals, aerobic exercise, weight training, yoga and sports drills all affect different areas of the brain.

They are looking beyond the standard recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate, aerobic exercise a day, for the sake of your brain. Are there benefits to going slower or faster? To lifting weights, or performing sun salutations? Whether you want a boost in focus for an exam, find it hard to relax or are keen to quit smoking, there’s a prescription for you.

“Lifting weights helps improve complex thoughts, problem-solving and multitasking”

The first clue that exercise affects the brain came from rodent studies 15 years ago, which showed that allowing mice access to a running wheel led to a boost in neuron formation in their hippocampi, areas of the brain essential for memory. That’s because exercise causes hippocampal neurons to pump out a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the growth of new neurons. The mice showed improvements in memory that allowed them to navigate mazes better.

The findings were soon translated to humans. Older adults who did aerobic exercise three times a week for a year also grew larger hippocampi and performed better in memory tests. Those with the highest levels of BDNF in their blood had the biggest increases in this brain region.

The idea that exercise helps to improve memory has been especially welcome given that the search for effective treatments for cognitive decline has been slow in progress. And it now seems that aerobic exercise such as running and cycling may help stave off Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

As the evidence for aerobic exercise accumulated, Teresa Liu-Ambrose at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, began to wonder about other types of exercise. She has been looking for ways to halt dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a population of adults known to be at increased risk of developing dementia, and was especially interested in strength training, which has in recent years been added to US and UK government recommendations for physical activity.

To test the idea, Liu-Ambrose compared the effects of aerobic exercise and strength training in 86 women with MCI. She measured their impact on two abilities known to decline as the condition progresses: memory and executive function — which encompasses complex thought processes, including reasoning, planning, problem-solving and multitasking.

Twice a week for an hour, one group lifted weights, while the other went for brisk walks quick enough that talking required effort. A control group just stretched for an hour instead. After six months of this, both walking and lifting weights had a positive effect on spatial memory — the ability to remember one’s surroundings and sense of place.

On top of that, each exercise had unique benefits. The group that lifted weights saw significant improvements to executive function. They also performed better in tests of associative memory, which is used for things like linking someone’s name to their face. The aerobic-exercise group saw improvements to verbal memory — the ability to remember that word you had on the tip of your tongue. Simply stretching had no effect on either memory or executive function.

If aerobic exercise and strength training have distinct benefits, is combining them the way to go? To address this, Willem Bossers of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands split 109 people with dementia into three groups. One group walked briskly four times a week for 30 minutes; a combination group walked twice a week and strength-trained twice a week for 30 minutes each; and a control group did no exercise. After nine weeks, Bossers put the participants through a battery of executive-function tests that measured problem-solving, inhibition and processing speed. He found that the combination group showed more improvement in executive function than the aerobic-only or control groups. “It seems that, for older adults, walking only is not enough. They need to do some strength training,” he says.

Immediate Attention Boost

And these benefits extend to healthy adults too. In a year-long trial of healthy older women, Liu-Ambrose found that lifting weights, even just once a week, resulted in significant improvements in tests of executive function. Balancing and toning exercises, on the other hand, did not.

The combination of lifting weights and aerobic exercise might be particularly powerful because strength training triggers the release of a molecule called insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a growth hormone produced in the liver that is known to affect communication between brain cells, and to promote the growth of new neurons and blood vessels. On the other hand, aerobic exercise mainly boosts BDNF, says Liu-Ambrose. In addition, Bossers says strength training also decreases levels of homocysteine, an inflammatory molecule that is increased in the brains of older adults with dementia. By combining aerobic exercise with strength training, you’re getting a more potent neurobiological cocktail. “You’re attacking the system in two ways,” he says.

The studies so far haven’t addressed how long the effects last, but preliminary findings suggest adults will have to keep exercising to maintain the benefits.

Another approach is to start young, with findings that different types of exercise affect a child’s mental capacity in a number of ways. For example, if you want kids to focus for an hour — on a math test, say — the best bet is to let them have a quick run around first. That’s according to studies that show a simple 20-minute walk has immediate effects on children’s attention, executive function and achievement in mathematics and reading tests. Letting kids sprint or skip about has the same effect. A brisk walk can also help children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder to focus, although again it’s not yet clear how long the effects last.

These findings should be used to make decisions about the daily school routine, says Charles Hillman at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who carried out some of the research. He agrees with current recommendations that children get at least an hour of exercise daily, but notes that it might be best spread over the course of the day. Because purely aerobic exercise keeps kids focused in the near term, giving them breaks to walk or move around every 2 hours might be the best way to promote learning.

In contrast, exercise that is highly structured and focused on specific skills, such as for a sport or to improve coordination, hampers attention. A bunch of drills and rules may be too taxing for children right before a test or a situation that requires sustained focus.

Instead, these kinds of specific exercises seem to build up attention span gradually over the long-term. In research yet to be published, Maria Chiara Gallotta at the University of Rome in Italy found that twice-weekly sessions of coordinative exercises, such as basketball, volleyball or gymnastics practice, over the course of five months helped children do better on tests that required concentration and ignoring distractions.

The cerebellum — the finely wrinkled structure at the base of the brain — has been long known to be involved in coordinating movement, but is now recognized as having a role in attention as well. Practicing complicated movements activates the cerebellum and, by working together with the frontal lobe, might improve attention in the process.

Making sure children are physically fit can have lasting cognitive benefits too, says Hillman. He has shown that children who are fit have larger hippocampi and basal ganglia, and that they perform better in attention tests. The basal ganglia are a group of structures important for movement and goal-directed behavior — turning thoughts into actions. They interact with the prefrontal cortex to influence attention, inhibition and executive control, helping people to switch between two tasks, such as going from sorting cards by color to sorting cards by suit.

Hillman focuses on children aged 8 to 11 because areas like the hippocampi and basal ganglia are still maturing, so intervening at a young age can make a big difference. And even small gains in fitness lead to measurable changes in the brain. In some of his studies, Hillman has put kids on year-long after-school fitness programs. Many are overweight, and while they don’t lose much weight, their brains do change. They’re going from being unfit to slightly less unfit, says Hillman. “But we’re still finding benefits to brain function and cognition.”

Adults too can reap brain gains from sporty challenges, says Claudia Voelcker-Rehage at Chemnitz University of Technology in Germany. Her research on older adults showed an increase in basal ganglia volume following coordination exercises that included balancing, synchronizing arm and leg movements, and manipulating props like ropes and balls, but not from aerobic exercise.

Voelcker-Rehage found that these types of exercise improved visual-spatial processing, required for mentally approximating distances — for instance, being able to assess whether you have time to cross the street before an oncoming car reaches you — more than aerobic exercise.

Another explanation comes from recent research by Tracy and Ross Alloway, both at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville. They found that just a couple of hours of activity of the type we often enjoy during childhood, such as climbing trees, crawling along a beam, or running barefoot, had a dramatic effect on working memory.

This is the ability to hold on to information and manipulate it in our minds at the same time. “It prioritizes and processes information, allowing us to ignore what is irrelevant and work with what is important,” says Tracy Alloway. “Working memory influences nearly everything that you do, from the classroom to the boardroom.”

So what is it about climbing trees or beam balancing that is so beneficial? The researchers only found positive results when the activities were a combination of two things. They needed to challenge the sense of proprioception — the position and orientation of the body — and also needed at least one other element, such as navigation, calculation or locomotion. Basically, the advantages came from exercises in which we need to balance and think at the same time.

The more we learn about the effects of exercise on the brain, the more different types of benefits are emerging, extending beyond cognition to changes in behavior.

Craving control

One of the most popular fitness trends of the last few years is high-intensity interval training, which involves quick spurts of all-out exercise. Its sheer toughness is claimed to provide the same benefits as longer efforts in a fraction of the time.

These workouts might have an extra advantage: short bursts of activity can help curb cravings. And although the tougher the better, they don’t necessarily have to be gut-bustingly hard.

To test the effects of intensity training on appetites, Kym Guelfi at the University of Western Australia in Perth invited overweight men to come into the lab on four separate occasions. On three of the visits, they spent 30 minutes on an exercise bike, but at different intensities — a moderate, continuous pace; alternating between intervals of high-intensity cycling for 1 minute followed by 4 minutes of moderate cycling; or alternating between very high intensity, 15-second sprints followed by one really easy minute. The fourth visit consisted of resting for the full 30 minutes.

After the most intense intervals, the men ate less of the provided, post-workout porridge and less food overall for the next day and a half compared with days they cycled moderately or simply rested.

One explanation could be that the exercise reduced levels of the “hunger hormone”, ghrelin. This is responsible for telling the part of the brain that controls eating — the hypothalamus — when the stomach is empty. When full, ghrelin production shuts off and hunger wanes. Following the most intense intervals of exercise, ghrelin levels were lowest.

What is clear is that these effects can endure well into old age, and it’s never too late to start. The hippocampus shrinks as we get older, leading to the typical struggles with memory. But aerobic exercise not only prevents this loss — it reverses it, slowing the effects of getting older. Voelcker-Rehage has found that the brain requires less energy to complete certain tasks after exercise. “We would say that points to the fact that the brain is more efficient,” she says. “It works more like a young brain.”

And in a study looking at yogis that had been practicing for many years, Sara Lazar at Massachusetts General Hospital found that some brain regions were remarkably well preserved compared with those of healthy controls that were matched for age, gender, education and race. “The 50-year-old’s brain looked like a 25-year-old’s,” notes Lazar.

If you’re still unsure which type of exercise to pick, there’s some overlap between the different exercises and benefits, so Liu-Ambrose’s suggestion is simple: “If you’re not active, do something that you enjoy.”

The best exercise is the kind that you’ll actually do.

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State Sen. Sylvia Garcia to speak at 2016 Fall Commencement Ceremony

State Sen. Sylvia R. Garcia

Lee College will recognize the achievements of more than 450 graduates at the 2016 Fall Commencement Ceremony to be held at 7 p.m., Friday, Dec. 16, in the Sports Arena on campus. Texas State Sen. Sylvia R. Garcia will deliver the keynote address.

A livestream of the commencement ceremony, in which more than 225 students are expected to participate, will also be available online via the Lee College website.

A native of the South Texas farming community of Palito Blanco, Garcia has represented Senate District 6 since 2013 and is chairwoman of the Texas Senate Hispanic Caucus. During the 84th Legislative Session, she passed 37 of her bills and served on the Education, Intergovernmental Relations, Transportation and Veterans Affairs & Military Installations committees.

After protecting children and the elderly as a social worker early in her professional career, Garcia entered public service with the city of Houston as director and presiding judge of the Houston Municipal System for an unprecedented five terms under two mayors. There, she worked to make the city court system more effective and efficient for the community. Garcia was later elected to city controller, earning a reputation as the taxpayers’ watchdog, and in 2002 was the first Hispanic and first woman to be elected in her own right to the Harris County Commissioners Court. As a commissioner, she continued her advocacy for working families and the most vulnerable, while also pushing for new jobs and economic development.

Garcia remains active in the Houston community, serving on more than 25 community boards and commissions including the San Jacinto Girl Scouts, which gave her the Board Award; Houston Hispanic Forum; American Leadership Forum; Battleship Texas; and the Museum of Fine Arts – Houston. She has been named “Humanitarian of the Year” by the National Conference of Communities and Justice and chosen as one of “Houston’s 25 Power People” by Inside Houston magazine.

The eighth of 10 children, Garcia’s parents taught her from an early age the value of education and hard work. She is a graduate of Texas Women’s University, which awarded her the Board of Regents Woman of Distinction Award, and earned a Juris Doctor degree from the Thurgood Marshall School of Law at Texas Southern University.

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‘Junior Achievement: Inspire’ bringing 3,000 local youth to campus

Lee College will welcome more than 3,000 local eighth-graders to campus Tuesday, Dec. 13, through Thursday, Dec. 15, for Junior Achievement (JA) Inspire, an interactive experience and career awareness fair that will give the students a glimpse into the wide variety of industries and job opportunities in the region.

This is the third year that Lee College has partnered with Junior Achievement of Southeast Texas to host JA Inspire for students from the Goose Creek, Barbers Hill, Hardin, Liberty, Dayton, Hull-Daisetta and Anahuac independent school districts.

The event will showcase the growing demand for local jobs in interest areas that align with high school endorsement tracks in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Business & Industry, Public Services and Arts and Humanities. All eighth-graders in Texas must select a track of study before entering high school.

The students will begin their JA Inspire day at Lee College with an opening ceremony, then rotate to interact with businesses through industry presentations, career stations and exhibits and displays from regional companies. They will also participate in a soft-skills play that explores the intangible qualities employers look for in prospective hires, like leadership and communication, before wrapping up their time on campus by recapping their experiences and hearing from event sponsors.

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Senior Adult & Travel Program hosting presentation in South Liberty County

The Senior Adult & Travel Program is hosting a special showcase at the Lee College Education Center – South Liberty County to give residents in the area more information about travel opportunities, enriching classes and activities for members of the Red Hat Society.

The presentation will be held from 10 a.m.-noon, Tuesday, Dec. 13.

“This is going to be a fun event, with great information and festive refreshments,” said Program Manager Lynne Foley, who will lead the event with the Liberty Center Advisory Committee. “I really hope to see the community show up and learn about these programs. It’s going to be a great time.”

Anyone interested in hearing the information is encouraged to attend, and no advanced registration is required. The Lee College Education Center – South Liberty County is located at 1715 TX-146 in Liberty. For more details, contact the Center for Workforce and Community Development at  281.425.6311.

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Rebel Rousing: Employee kudos, news, views, hires & resignations

Lynne Foley, manager of the Senior Adult & Travel Program offered through the Center for Workforce and Community Education, was leading Lee College travelers on a trip to Denali National Park in Alaska when she was struck by a violent attack of vertigo — leaving her sick for two days and without the ability to hear.

Upon her return to Baytown, Foley was diagnosed with Bilaterial Meniere’s Disease: a condition that includes severe hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus and significant head pressure and requires a head shunt to be put in for relief. Even after the surgery, she was left with only 20 percent hearing in her right ear and about 50 percent hearing in her left.

Yet despite her hearing impairment, Foley has continued to lead hundreds on tours to exciting destinations around the world in her 28-year career at Lee College. She has a titanium shunt and hearing aid, taught herself to read lips, joined the Healthy Hearing Association of Houston and continuously advocates for others facing the same challenges. Her story was recently highlighted in Horizon magazine, a publication of The Baytown Sun.

“Since I have that handicap, I try to help other people on the tours who need a little more time,” Foley told the magazine. “So much has been given to me in the past 28 years. I love people. I really care about them.”

Click here to read the article online.

Congratulations on your feature, Lynne! Your warmth, positivity and big heart for others are an inspiration to our campus and community. 

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Weekly Wellness from Jason Summers

Power up your willpower: Strengthen your resolve to reach your goals

Brought to you by UnitedHealthcare Healthy Mind Healthy Body

Self-control is like a muscle. It gets stronger the more you use it.

That’s good news. Because even if you’ve strayed off track in the past, you can re-energize your efforts — and see results.


Here are a few sure ways to boost your resolve:

Pick one goal at a time. Making a bunch of changes at once can wear out your willpower. Pick one area to focus on first — and then build from there.

Outwit temptation. If you know what things tend to trigger your slip-ups, make a plan to avoid them. For example, if you’re trying to eat better, stock the fridge and pantry with healthy fare — and keep less-healthy foods out or at least out of sight.

Write down your reasons. Reminding yourself why you decided to set a goal can be a great motivator. Maybe you’re trying to quit tobacco. Keep a list of your reasons in the pocket or purse where you used to carry your cigarettes.

Eliminate surprises. Make a plan for situations you know will test your resolve. Say you’re trying to spend less. Think up if-then scenarios like this: If I need to go shopping, then I’ll pay with cash so I stick to my limit.

Raise your spirits. Studies show that a good mood helps keep your self-control strong. So do little things to help stay upbeat. Start the day with a funny video — or take a break with your favorite magazine.

Understand setbacks. If you gave in to temptation, don’t beat yourself up. Just think about how you can do better next time.

Pat yourself on the back. Your willpower gets stronger every time you use it. So give yourself credit every time you make a positive choice. You’re one step closer to your goal!

Fight back — with a snack. Feel like you’re at war with your willpower? You’re not alone. More than 25 percent of adults say that lack of self-control is the No. 1 thing that stops them from making healthy changes.

Here’s a tip if you’re trying to control overeating or other poor choices: Don’t get too hungry. Keeping your blood sugar steady with regular, healthy meals and snacks can help keep your brain fueled for stronger willpower.

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